Photovoltaic Modules 

Photovoltaic Modules


Solar Panel Technology

Solar Power Electricity

 

COMPLETE KIT 100 W Watt 100W Solar Panel + 1500W Inverter 12V RV Boat Off Grid
$339.99
End Date: Thursday Jul-28-2016 18:05:42 PDT
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Renogy 100W Watts Solar Panel Kit 100 Watt Poly Off Grid 12V RV Boat Home
$148.49
End Date: Sunday Jul-24-2016 16:26:37 PDT
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Renogy 100 Watt 12V Solar Panel Mono Foldable Suitcase Kit without Controller
$229.49
End Date: Saturday Aug-6-2016 9:16:11 PDT
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100 Watt 100W 12V 12 Volt Flexible Bendable Solar Panel RV Boat Marine
$170.99
End Date: Thursday Jul-28-2016 0:05:21 PDT
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GOAL ZERO NOMAD 13 SOLAR PANEL BRAND NEW SEALED
$129.99
End Date: Tuesday Aug-16-2016 7:27:36 PDT
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12 volt dc 100 watt Solar panel polycrystaline photovoltaic PV Off Grid
$123.98
End Date: Monday Aug-15-2016 15:12:23 PDT
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100W Solar Panel 100 Watt 12V 12 Volt Poly Off Grid RV Boat Home
$112.48
End Date: Tuesday Jul-26-2016 13:17:37 PDT
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Renogy (4) 250W Watt 1000W Monocrystalline Solar Panel for Off/On Grid System
$1,339.99
End Date: Friday Aug-12-2016 7:04:00 PDT
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Renogy 6 Pcs 250 Watts 24V 1.5KW Mono Solar Panel
$1,879.99
End Date: Sunday Jul-24-2016 17:59:33 PDT
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Renogy Firefly - Light Portable Power 20W 12V Solar Panel Mono Charging Station
$478.99
End Date: Friday Aug-5-2016 19:30:24 PDT
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1- 160 Watt 12 Volt Battery Charger Solar Panel Off Grid RV Boat 160 watt total
$165.00
End Date: Monday Aug-1-2016 13:02:41 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $165.00
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GENSSI® 100W Solar Panel 12V 12 Volt Poly Off Grid Battery Charger RV Boat
$104.95
End Date: Monday Aug-15-2016 11:42:37 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $104.95
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2- 160 Watt 12 Volt Battery Charger Solar Panel Off Grid RV Boat 320 watt total
$330.00
End Date: Monday Aug-22-2016 10:04:11 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $330.00
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New 320 Watt Semi Flexible Frameless Solar Panel 24V Volts 320W Made In USA!
$129.00
End Date: Wednesday Aug-17-2016 15:00:41 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $129.00
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Renogy 100W Watt Solar Panel Mono 12V Volt for Off Grid RV Boat Battery Charge
$134.99
End Date: Tuesday Aug-9-2016 11:12:31 PDT
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Mighty Max 100W Solar Panel 12V Poly Off Grid Battery Charger for Boat
$104.95
End Date: Sunday Aug-21-2016 20:10:22 PDT
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Mighty Max 100 Watt Monocrystalline Solar Panel
$118.95
End Date: Sunday Aug-21-2016 20:10:27 PDT
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Renogy Solar Panel PV Off Grid RV Boat 2pcs 100W 12 Volt Mono Cells Charger
$269.99
End Date: Friday Aug-12-2016 16:46:27 PDT
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100 Watt 100W Solar Panel Kit with LCD Solar Controller 12V RV Boat Off Grid
$181.99
End Date: Thursday Jul-28-2016 21:53:32 PDT
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12 Volt 50 Watt Polycrystalline Solar Panel Photovoltaic PV Off Grid boat marine
$79.98
End Date: Saturday Jul-30-2016 14:20:05 PDT
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12 Volt 10 Watt Polycrystalline 36 Cell Solar Panel Photovoltaic PV 15 Watt Max
$44.98
End Date: Monday Aug-15-2016 8:55:47 PDT
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solar panel mounting rack 5 ft rails for pv photovoltaic RV Boat Heavy Duty
$89.00
End Date: Wednesday Aug-17-2016 21:13:50 PDT
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100 Watt 100W 12V 12 Volt Solar Panel Battery Charger RV Boat Camping Off Grid
$117.99
End Date: Monday Aug-22-2016 16:25:05 PDT
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NEW SOLAREX SX-5M MULTI-CRYSTALLINE 4.5W SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SX MODULE PANEL NIB
$59.99
End Date: Sunday Aug-7-2016 11:57:04 PDT
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10 AWG Gauge PV Wire 5 ft to 300 ft for PV MC4 USA Solar Panel Extension Cable
$63.63
End Date: Sunday Aug-7-2016 14:40:13 PDT
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SJ3A Solar Panel Charger Controller Regulator PWM 12V 3A DT
$4.81
End Date: Wednesday Aug-3-2016 16:16:16 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $4.81
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Renogy 300W Watt Solar Panel Kit 3 pcs 100W 12V Mono RV Boat Charge Controller
$431.99
End Date: Tuesday Aug-16-2016 10:53:10 PDT
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2 pairs MC4 branch connectors for solar panel pv photovoltaic splitter coupler
$15.99
End Date: Sunday Aug-14-2016 15:31:42 PDT
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10 AWG Gauge PV Wire 5 ft to 300 ft for PV MC4 USA Solar Panel Extension Cable
$123.48
End Date: Sunday Aug-7-2016 14:40:13 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $123.48
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10 AWG Gauge PV Wire 5 ft to 300 ft for PV MC4 USA Solar Panel Extension Cable
$187.13
End Date: Sunday Aug-7-2016 14:40:13 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $187.13
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ALEKO 20W 20-WATT 12V 12 VOLT MONOCRYSTALLINE SOLAR PANEL MODULE
$45.99
End Date: Tuesday Aug-16-2016 10:04:12 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $45.99
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Newpowa 20W Watt 12V Solar Panel + PWM 10A Charge Controller Battery Charger Kit
$69.66
End Date: Wednesday Jul-27-2016 15:15:49 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $69.66
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Renogy 100W 12V Monocrystalline Solar Panel Expansion Kit for RV Boat Off Grid
$151.79
End Date: Thursday Jul-28-2016 19:13:40 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $151.79
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10 AWG Gauge PV Wire 5 ft to 300 ft for PV MC4 USA Solar Panel Extension Cable
$33.23
End Date: Sunday Aug-7-2016 14:40:13 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $33.23
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2500/5000 Watt Solar Generator 100 Solar Panel 100AH Battery Portable Emergency
$770.00
End Date: Tuesday Aug-2-2016 12:19:55 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $770.00
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ALEKO 30W Monocrystalline Solar Panel 12 Volt Output
$55.00
End Date: Saturday Aug-6-2016 12:05:44 PDT
Buy It Now for only: $55.00
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Photovoltaic Modules

 These are assembled sets of interconnected solar cells. The photovoltaic modules are commonly known as solar panels and are used as a component in large photovoltaic systems to generate electricity by using light energy from the sun.

  This effect is called photovoltaic effect. A photovoltaic mainly consists of many assembled solar cells. It consists of a transparent front side, encapsulated solar cells and a back side.

 For one to use the cells in a practical demonstration, the cells must be

  • electrically connected to one another and the rest of the whole system
  • protected from moisture as the corrosion could damage the contacts.
  • protected from any mechanical damage from manufacture, transportation, installation and when in use.
  • Most modules are generally rigid but some are flexible, based on thin film cells.

 Thin Film modules

 Thin film cells are advanced third generation solar cells. The advantage is that they produce high efficiency energy conversion at a lower price.

 Third generation offers among others non semi conductor technologies, quantum dot, multi-junction cells and intermediate band solar cell.

Types of 3rd generation solar cells

  • A-SI
  • Cd Te (second generation)
  • CIGS( copper Indium gallium selenide, second generation
  • Nanocrystal solar cell. Of course the research is quite intensive, so expect unexpected and new emerging technology.

 Performance and life time

 The module performance is rated under Standard Test Conditions (STC)

Electrical characteristic of the module includes

  • nominal power measure in W
  • open circuit voltage
  • short circuit current measured in amperes
  • maximum power voltage
  • maximum power current and,
  • module efficiency

 Solar panels are made to withstand heat, cold, rain and hail storms for several years. Many modules come with warranties of guaranteed electrical production for 10 years at 90% of rated power out and 25 years at 80%. With more research and modern manufacturing technologies - expect prices to go down rather rapidly over the next 5-10 years.

 

 


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Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of ... E1038 - 10(2015) Standard Test Method for Determining Resistance of Photovoltaic Modules to Hail by Impact with Propelled Ice Balls , hail resistance, ice ball ...

 

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